Fermentation is a process that involves the conversion of sugar into gas, acids, or alcohols. Fermentation processes are often utilized for the production of biomass, pharmaceuticals, enzymes, and chemicals.
Yeast, bacteria, and fungi are the cell types commonly used in these culture processes. Nonetheless, industrial fermentation techniques involving animal plus plant cells were recently introduced.
When it comes to aerobic fermentation, where microbial cells are involved, reactor configurations are required to facilitate aeration as well as oxygen transfer. And these include air-lift, rotating-drum, stirred-tank, and tray reactors.
Anaerobic reactors, on the other hand, require simpler bioreactor designs since no aerated facilities are needed.
Industrial microbiology refers to a branch of biotechnology that essentially applies microbial sciences to manufacture industrial products in mass quantities.
Generally, there are numerous ways to manipulate microorganisms in order to optimize product yields.
Mutations can be introduced into an organism by exposing them to mutagens. Another effective way to boost production is through gene amplification. This is usually done by using plasmids as well as vectors.
This technique has numerous applications in the real world, including the production of certain antibiotics, enzymes, alcohol, vitamins, amino acids, and solvents.
Industrial microbiology is now being used in the production of new medications synthesized in specific organisms for medical purposes. Most bacterial infections are usually treated with antibiotics.
And most antibiotics, as well as precursors, are created through a natural process referred to as fermentation.
Typically, the microorganisms are grown in a liquid media where their population size is controlled so as to yield the highest amount of product.
Through fermentation, massive quantities of vitamins are also produced. Vitamin B2 and steroids, for instance, can be produced through fermentation or biotransformation.
Microbes also help in aiding the synthesis of amino acids as well as organic solvents. The synthesis of L-Tryptophan, L-Methionine, an essential amino acid, L-Glutamic, and L-Lysine are widely being used in today’s food and pharmaceutical industries.
The production of organic solvents such as acetone, isopropanol, and butanol through fermentation was among the first things to be manufactured using bacteria.
Solvent fermentation utilizes a series of Clostridial bacteria. And it usually happens anaerobically. What this means is that microorganisms going through this process can thrive without the presence of oxygen.
Bacteria are widely utilized for the mass production of multiple products. In the past, solvent fermentation wasn’t as productive as it’s today.
In the present world, there’s an increasing demand for agricultural products such as fertilizers and pesticides. But due to the excessive use of these chemical substances, the soil becomes infertile and unfavorable for growing crops.
In that case, biofertilizers, organic farming, as well as biopesticides, which are typically created through fermentation, come to the rescue.
The Bottom Line
According to fermentation research and development, fermentation is a very important process in today’s world. It’s now being utilized for the mass production of numerous products, including bio-fertilizers, alcohol, bio-pesticides, antibiotics, solvents, and vitamins.
It’s successfully being applied in the medical, agricultural, and industrial sectors.